Putting aside many years of animosity, the Commissioners of Queen Elizabeth I, the Scottish Lords of the Congregation, and representatives of Francis II of France drafted the Treaty of Edinburgh on 5 July 1560, concluding the Siege of Leith and replacing the Auld Alliance between France and Scotland with a new Anglo-Scottish accord.

The English army came to Scotland at the invitation of the Protestant Lords of the Congregation, who wanted the French Catholic regent, Mary of Guise, and her French troops gone. With the army approaching, Mary reinforced the town and port of Leith, which then found itself under siege. The Treaty of Edinburgh (also known as the Treaty of Leith) was completed about a month after Mary of Guise’s death and ended the siege. Fortifications at Leith, Inchkeith, and Dunbar Castle were also removed, and the French troops departed.

One person who was not happy with the treaty was the actual Queen of Scotland, Mary, who was also Queen of France at the time. She would be under pressure to accept and ratify the treaty until her death in 1587. She refused to do so up to the very end.

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